2008 | | map
Fluoride in Groundwater: Probability of occurrence of excessive concentration on global scale; an update
Although small amounts of Fluoride are healthy for humans, prolonged consumption of water with high concentrations of Fluoride will cause detrimental effects to the humanbody. First of all, dental fluorosis may occur, where the calcium of the teeth is replaced with fluoride. In more severe cases, skeletal fluorosis may occur, where the calcium in the bones is replaced with fluoride. This latter affliction is very painful and may cause skeletal deformities.
In most countries, potable water from the taps is checked for high F concentrations and drinking water can be expected to adhere to WHO standards. In many places however, where drinking water is directly extracted from surface or groundwater, no checks may be in place, while high F concentrations may occur due to the presence of natural F sources; i.e. from the bedrock.
In 2007 and 2004, IGRAC already published maps on the probability of occurrence of high F concentrations in groundwater. While working at IGRAC, I updated these maps whenever new information became available.